$ sudo yum install binutils gcc patch make libgomp glibc-headres glibc-devel kernel-devel
And yet my kernel module build failed with a message like
Unable to find sources for your current Linux kernel, try setting KERN_DIR and try recompiling.
A lot of research showed me that my kernel version and kernel-devel versions were different:
yum list installed | grep kernel
So I had to install the correct version of kernel-devel package.
yum install kernel-devel-$(uname -r)
And voila, my Guest Additions compiled and installed the kernel modules successfully.